What body structure makes the sponge well adapted for living in different types of water?

What body structure makes the sponge well adapted for living in different types of water?

The shapes of their bodies are adapted for maximal efficiency of water flow through the central cavity, where the water deposits nutrients and then leaves through a hole called the osculum. Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin and/or spicules (skeletal-like fragments) of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide.

What structures provide support for a sponge body?

What structures provide structural support for sponges? Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges. They provide structural support and deter predators. Large spicules that are visible to the naked eye are referred to as megascleres, while smaller, microscopic ones are termed microscleres.

How do sponges survive underwater?

Sponges are attached to hard surfaces underwater. They are well-adapted to their watery life. Moving water currents carry food and oxygen to them and take away the sponges’ waste products. But unlike plants, sponges must take food into their bodies to live.

What is the structure that allows water in and out of a sponge?

Water is pumped directly through pores, called ostia, into the spongocoel and then out of the sponge through an opening called the osculum (plural oscula). The spongocoel is lined with specialized digestive cells called choanocytes that filter and take in food.

What two structures make up the skeleton of a sponge and what are they made of?

Sponge skeletons are made of rod-like silica structures called spicules that are cemented to rocks and to each other with collagen.

What are the different structures that make up the internal skeleton of sponge?

An internal skeleton is called an endoskeleton. A sponge endoskeleton consists of short, sharp rods called spicules (see Figure below). Spicules are made of silica, calcium carbonate, or spongin, a tough protein. They grow from specialized cells in the body of the sponge.

What makes up the sponge support system?

The body of the sponge is a loose collection of about six different types of specialized cells. Some of these cells secrete a supporting skeleton either of collagen fibers or of tiny, sharp mineral pieces called spicules. Collagen is a protein found in all animals that helps hold cells together.

Which structures are found on sponges?

The special cells of the sponge include those that filter sea water; cells that are phagocytic (that engulf and digest food particles); those that form the external ‘skin’, breathing pores and tubes through which water enters and leaves the body; and those that secrete the mineral and organic skeletons, called spicules …

What type of body cavity do sponges have?

The body of the simplest sponges takes the shape of a cylinder with a large central cavity, the spongocoel. Water enters the spongocoel from numerous pores in the body wall. Water flows out through a large opening called the osculum (Figure 15.2.

What body structures organs are sponges lacking?

Sponges lack complex digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, and nervous systems. Their food is trapped when water passes through the ostia and out through the osculum.

What is the function of a sponges?

Sponges are filter feeders. They pump water into their body through their pores. The water flows through a large central cavity called the spongocoel (see Figure above ). As the water flows by, specialized collar cells (which are also known as choanocytes) filter out food particles such as bacteria.

Do sponges have tissue layers?

While sponges (excluding the Hexactinellids) do not exhibit tissue-layer organization, they do have different cell types that perform distinct functions. Pinacocytes, which are epithelial-like cells, form the outermost layer of sponges, enclosing a jelly-like substance called mesohyl.

What is the function of the water current in a sponge?

Form and function. The most important structure is the system of canals and chambers, called a water-current system, through which water circulates to bring food and oxygen to the sponge. The water-current system also helps disperse gametes and larvae and remove wastes.

What is the function of the osculum in a sponge?

Cells called amebocytes also help digest the food. They distribute the nutrients to the rest of the body as well. Finally, the water flows back out of the body through an opening called the osculum. As water flows through the sponge, oxygen diffuses from the water to the sponge’s cells.