Table of Contents
Which part of DNA tells what protein to make?
Each DNA sequence that contains instructions to make a protein is known as a gene.
How do cells know which protein to make?
In order for a cell to manufacture these proteins, specific genes within its DNA must first be transcribed into molecules of mRNA; then, these transcripts must be translated into chains of amino acids, which later fold into fully functional proteins.
What cell organelle makes proteins?
Ribosomes. Ribosomes are the protein factories of the cell. Composed of two subunits, they can be found floating freely in the cell’s cytoplasm or embedded within the endoplasmic reticulum.
How is a protein made from DNA?
In the first step, the information in DNA is transferred to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule by way of a process called transcription. The mRNA sequence is thus used as a template to assemble—in order—the chain of amino acids that form a protein.
How does the structure of DNA determine the structure of a protein?
DNA carries the genetic information for making proteins. The base sequence determines amino acid sequence in protein. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a molecule which carries a copy of the code from the DNA, in the nucleus, to a ribosome, where the protein is assembled from amino acids.
What two organelles make proteins?
The two organelles that produce proteins are the endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes. The endoplasmic reticulum is located throughout the cytoplasm…
What is the molecular structure of a protein?
What Are Proteins Made Of? The building blocks of proteins are amino acids, which are small organic molecules that consist of an alpha (central) carbon atom linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable component called a side chain (see below).
What part of the cell stores instructions for making proteins?
It stores instructions for making other large molecules, called proteins. These instructions are stored inside each of your cells, distributed among 46 long structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are made up of thousands of shorter segments of DNA, called genes.
How are DNA sequences used to make proteins?
To carry out these functions, DNA sequences must be converted into messages that can be used to produce proteins, which are the complex molecules that do most of the work in our bodies. Each DNA sequence that contains instructions to make a protein is known as a gene.
What is the function of the single strand of DNA?
When a cell prepares to divide, the DNA helix splits down the middle and becomes two single strands. These single strands serve as templates for building two new, double-stranded DNA molecules – each a replica of the original DNA molecule.
What are the instructions in a gene that tell the cell?
The instructions in a gene that tell the cell how to make a specific protein. A, C, G, and T are the “letters” of the DNA code; they stand for the chemicals adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T), respectively, that make up the nucleotide bases of DNA.